- The Mongolian Republic is a country located in the center of Asia. It
borders on Russia to the North, and on China to the East, South and West.
Mongolia is one of the oldest states in the world. It is the seventh largest
country in Asia, covering a territory of 1,565,000 sq. km, and one of
the largest land-locked countries in the world. The territory of Mongolia
stretches along 2392 km from the Altai Mountains in the West to the East,
and along 1259 km from the Sayan Mountain Ranges in the North to the Gobi
Desert in the South. Ulan-Bator (with 870,000 inhabitants) is the capital
of Mongolia and home to around one third of the country’s population.
Mongolia is a parliamentary republic with the president as the head of
the state. The country is divided into 18 administrative provinces (aymak)
and 3 municipal entities (hotuud).
The Mongols are shy by nature. They often hide their confusion or embarrassment
behind a smile. Most Mongols are taciturn, reticent, tolerant, and some
people say, superstitious. Fussiness and inconsistency are considered
undignified. At the same time, the Mongols may get very excited while
playing a game, or just boil over in anger. The Mongols do not like to
talk about unpleasant things. It is believed that such talk may invoke
only more trouble. It is also forbidden to say bad things about relatives
and friends. When from time to time something unpleasant has to be said,
people try to do it as tactfully and inoffensively as possible.
Harahorum (Hara Horin), the capital of the Old Mongolian State, was founded in 1220 by Genghis Khan and existed until the 16th century. The ruins of Harahorum are situated in the upstream area of the River Orkhon. Historical recordings of Harahorum are found in Chinese annals and in notes of European travelers of the 13th century such as Plano Carpini, Marco Polo, or V. Rubruka.
the end of the 19th century the Russian researcher N.M. Jadrintsev investigated
the ruins of Harahorum. A.M. Pozdneev, analyzing historical sources, has
confirmed the location of Harahorum nearby the Buddhist monastery Erdenidzu
(built in 1585 in the southern part of Harahorum). During the Soviet-Mongolian
Expedition in 1948-1949, guided by S.V. Kiselyov, parts of Harahorum were
Erdenizu Monastery - The first Buddhist Monastery of Mongolia,
“Erdenizu”, surrounded by a monumental 400m-long wall with
108 Stupas, is located on the ruins of the old city of Harahorum. In the
year 1792, this place was home to 62 temples and 10,000 Lamas. Later,
some parts of the monastery were destroyed. However, since 1990 it has
been in operation , and a large part of its former beauty has been restored.
Terelj National Park.
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