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The Barguzin valley, The Barguzin mountain ridge, The mineral springs of Barguzin valley.

Barguzin valleyThe Barguzin valley. The name of the valley originates from the local word “Bargut,” which means “outskirts, wilderness.” It was the name of a Mongolian tribe that used to inhabit the valley. The country of Bargudzhin-Tukum –“the country of light ” –is often mentioned in the “Secret Tales of Mongolia,” an early chronicle of Mongol history. It says that in the 12th century, Bargut tribes did not fight against Genghis Khan becauseGenghis Khan’s mother originated from the area. They even supplied soldiers for Genghis Khan’s army.
Even today, from the air, one can observe the irrigation canals made by those ancient people. Numerous Bargut antiquities, including iron and bronze items similar to those made by Chinese,provide evidence that the tribe used to inhabit this land. Among the well known ancient sitesare: the remains of a dam and a mill, a cave with inscriptions made in Mongol and Tibetan near the Bannoy River, a stele with Bargut inscriptions near the Khargana settlement in the Kuitun steppe, a sanctuary at the Kladovo settlement, and the Bukhe-Shulun rock near the Suvo village.

The Barguzin valley is famous for its numerous mineral springs and picturesque rocks on slopes of the Ikat ridge. There are some beautiful sites such as the Suvinsky rockfaces (400 m. long and 50 m. high), the stones of Uher-Shulun, Gribok (Sphynx), the Kamnigs rockface. The valley is located in the intermountain hollow with a length of 200 km and its widest part of 35 km at the Barguzin village. The total area of the Barguzin valley is 3,100,300 hectares. The Dzherginsky National Park,founded in August 1992, covers an area of 238,700 hectares in the valley.

The Barguzin River flows into the Barguzin valley. It is the third largest tributary of Baikal, after the Selenga and Upper Angara. The length of the river is 416 km, its slope is 1344 m. and its average downward slope is 2.8%. The Barguzin River splits into several branches in the valley’s middlesection. A number of lakes converge here, making a common river web with an impassible swamp and an underbrush of tall reeds full of natatoriums. The number of such lakes is about 1076 with an area from 2 to 10 hectares.

In the northwest, the valley is bordered by the very steep Barguzin Alps (2840 m) and less steep (2558 m) forest-covered Ikat slopes on its southeast. The mountain part of the Barguzin valley attracts many tourists and climbers. There are good footpaths along the valleys of the mountain rivers and up to mountain passes and peaks with numerous waterfalls, ice kars, and lakes. The mountainous ranges are covered with thick forest – taiga with cedar pine prevalence. Also one can find rhododendron, leather bergenia lying on grassed covered thickets.

The main asphalted motorway passes at the bottom of the Barguzinsky mountain range along both the right and left banks of the Barguzin River. There are good footpaths along the mountain rivers and valleys. The valley is inhabited and well developed. The population is 30,000 people, of which 30 % are Buryats.

Barguzinsky RangeThe Barguzinsky Mountain Range.
The Barguzinsky Mountain Range occupies more than one third of the eastern coast of Lake Baikal, stretching for about 300 kms along the lake from the North to the South from the valley of the Upper Angara River. Its width in the North is about 80 kms, and in the South, in the Chivyrkuiski hills is about 30 kms. The average height of its peaks is under 2400 m, with the highest peak measuring 2841 m (Baikal). The Barguzinsky Mountain Range is the most impressive and the highest among ranges surrounding Baikal. It is made up of many pointed peaks, towers, needles, pyramids and the trapezes composed from hard minerals in the high mountainous part of the range. One can find traces of comparatively recent glaciers in the form of small modern glaciers, morenny deposits. The valleys of the rivers resemble a trough with crossbars and ledges, lined with numerous waterfalls and cascades. The highest of themis on the tributary of the Tompudy River, the Tykma. It reaches about 300 meters in length. In the upper parts of the range there is a set of glacial lakes. . The eastern slopes of the range (from the side of the Barguzin River), especially in the central part, have steep precipices which face the valley as rocky walls, and the western slopes have spurs cut by abounding in water tributaries of Baikal, gently sloping aside the coasts of the lake.

The Springs of Barguzin Valley.

Allinsky springsThe Allinsky springs are located 8 km to the West of Alla village, not far from the Kuchegersky springs. Hot water with temperatures ranging from +55C up to + 75C emerges at the bottom of the Barguzin Mountain Ridge in the valley of Alla. There are 46 outlets of mineral waters with considerable contents of sulfate hydrocarbonate structure. The valley of the river is trough shaped; it was made by ancient glacier. The river flows in the narrow canyon-like gorge. The springs are very popular and actively visited by not only local people but also tourists.

The Garginsky spring is very famous for its mineral water. The spring is located 33 kms from the Mogoito settlement in the valley of the Gargi River. The spring thermal water emerges from rock cracks on the right hill of river’s valley of the Ikat ridge at a height of 100 meters. The water emerges in the form of travertine sedimentation. Its temperatures range from + 74C up to +75C. According to the chemical components they are sulphatic natrium waters with contents of radon (from 35 to 43 eman). The water of the spring is similar to that of the Nilova Pustyn Resort in its mineral composition.
In addition to the healing properties of thermal water, the picturesque mountainous area with its beautiful thick forest, mountain fresh air, and fast mountainous river with ice clear water make the Garginsky spring quite popular among visitors. The visit to the spring in 1775 by well known Russian academician and traveler I.G. Georgi also demonstrates the significance and wide popularity of the spring. He was the first to investigate the springs and evaluate the curative properties of its water. Indeed, due to its healing qualities, the springs have become a resort of regional importance.

The Kuchigersky mineral springs are located 4 –5 kms from the village of Ulynhan at the northwest part of the Barguzin ridge. An interesting feature of the spring is its widely varying temperature: its range goes from +21C up to +75C, with a hydrosulphuric content of 29 mg/l. The springs are very famous for their medical hydrosulphuric mud. The total area of the mud is more than 40 thousand cubic metres. Although there have not been analyses of the chemical, mechanical, microbiological structure of the mud, it has been successfully used by local people for treatingrheumatic, vessels and heart diseases.

The Seyuisky spring is located in the Barguzin River valley on the tributaries of the Haharhay River. The spring flows out from a dove-egg shaped lake. The approximate size of the lake is 3 to 5 m. Being located in pine forest, it is the perfect place forrelaxing. The type of water is hydrocarbonate natrium. The debit of waters is 15 l/sm, mineralization 0,4 g/l, temperature +76C +77C, pH-9. The Seyuisky spring is a part of the Dzherginsky Nature Reserve.

The Umheisky springs emerge on the ancient surface of a little island at the upper Barguzin River and cover an area of 8 hectares. This beautiful place has similar curative qualitiesas the famed Shumak and Goryachinsk. The type of water is sulphide hydrocarbonate natrium. The temperature of the water varies from 43C to 44 C.The Umheisky springs are the part of the Dzherginsky Nature Reserve.

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